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Continuous improvement in emissions controls hence remains a high priority for all primary aluminum producers. Both authors are former employees of Rio Tinto Alcan formerly Alcan Aluminium Ltd and have received at times consultant fees since their departure for other types of service to the company S. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. J Occup Environ Med. Published online May 8. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.volmisachipvi.tk/map35.php
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The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. Methods: We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose—response relationships of the principal hazardous agents emitted. Results: On the basis of representative measured community exposure levels, we were able to make rough estimates on health risks associated with specific agents and categorize these as none, low, medium, or high.
Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a rough-estimate community Health Risk Assessment for individual smelters on the basis of information available in the epidemiological literature and local community exposure data. Open in a separate window. We reviewed the following data: Epidemiological study results for health effects of aluminum production Known and suspected health hazards of aluminum smelters Studies of the health outcomes in communities with primary aluminum smelters Studies of health outcomes in communities not specifically smelter towns with exposure to the principal hazards identified earlier Smelter community exposure level data for the hazardous agents of interest We then carried out an HRA using comparisons between actual or estimated community exposure levels and those associated with adverse outcomes in the smelter studies, nonsmelter communities, or both to assess risk in aluminum smelter communities.
TABLE 1. Identification of Potential Health Hazards in Smelters Occupational exposures in primary aluminum smelters are well identified by Jelinic et al 1 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. TABLE 2. Typical Workplace Exposure Levels Occupational exposure levels have been reported in numerous publications. TABLE 3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease There is good consistency from morbidity—mortality studies for increased prevalence and mortality rates for this disease among electrolysis workers in aluminum production.
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Lung Cancer See Occupational Cancers section. Beryllium Sensitization Although there is significant exposure to beryllium-containing dust in certain smelters, beryllium sensitization in aluminum smelter workers appears to be rare in two studies performed in North America and Norway prevalence of 0. Noise-Induced Health Effects Noise-induced hearing loss is well-documented in aluminum smelters where exposures in certain similar exposure groups or jobs can exceed 85 dBA for 8-hour shifts or 82 dBA for hour shifts.
Asbestosis, Mesothelioma, and Silicosis These are diseases that have been identified in aluminum production facilities, but because their causal agents are not significant components of smelter emissions into the environment, they will not be discussed here. Beryllium Neighborhood levels of airborne beryllium were to fold lower than EPA—recommended exposure limit of 0. Particulate Matter There is now an impressive body of scientific literature concerning the health effects of community exposures to airborne particulates.
Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur dioxide is a well-known respiratory irritant and has been shown to reliably produce bronchoconstriction in persons with asthma in a dose-related manner, beginning at about ppb in persons with mild to moderate asthma. Fluorides Primary aluminum smelters emit fluorides in gaseous and particulate forms.
Footnotes Both authors are former employees of Rio Tinto Alcan formerly Alcan Aluminium Ltd and have received at times consultant fees since their departure for other types of service to the company S. Exposure to chemical agents in aluminium potrooms. Med Lav.
Occupational Exposures During Aluminium Production. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: an historical review. Ann Occup Hyg. Tarry substances and benzpyrene in the air of electrolytic shops of aluminum works and their carcinogenic significance. Gig Sanit. Gibbs GW, Horowitz I. Lung cancer mortality in aluminum reduction plant workers. J Occup Med. Gibbs GW. Mortality of aluminum reduction plant workers through Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers.
Part 3: monitoring the mortality of workers first employed after January 1st, Bladder cancer in the aluminum industry. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers Canada. Cancer Causes Control. Occupational exposure and cancer incidence among workers from an aluminum smelter in western Norway. Scand J Work Environ Health. Mortality and cancer incidence in workers in two Australian prebake aluminum smelters. Occup Environ Med. Mortality for pancreatic cancer among aluminum smelter workers in Sardinia, Italy. G Ital Med Lav Ergon.
Aluminium potroom asthma: the Norwegian experience. Eur Respir J. Incidence of asthma among aluminum workers. Is potroom asthma due more to sulphur dioxide than fluoride? An inception cohort study in the Australian aluminum industry. Part 2. Mortality of three cohorts hired on or before January 1, Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers.
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Beryllium sensitivity among workers at a Norwegian aluminum smelter. Am J Ind Med. Estimating residential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH related lung cancer risks using occupational data. Armstrong BG, Gibbs G. Exposure—response relationship between lung cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs. Risk assessment of lung cancer related to environmental PAH pollution sources.
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Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. A case-crossover study of ambient particulate matter and cardiovascular and respiratory medical encounters among US military personnel deployed to southwest Asia.
Community Health Risk Assessment of Primary Aluminum Smelter Emissions
Short-term risk of hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis in children living near an aluminum smelter. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. Analysis of the concentration—respiratory response among asthmatics following controlled short-term exposures to sulfur dioxide. Inhal Toxicol. Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: a cross-sectional study. Can Respir J. Risk of asthmatic episodes in children exposed to sulfur dioxide stack emissions from a refinery point source in Montreal, Canada.
Short-term effects of ambient gaseous pollutants and particulate matter on daily mortality in Shanghai, China.
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J Occup Health. Bronchial responsiveness, eosinophilia, and short term exposure to air pollution. Arch Dis Child. Respiratory survey of North American Indian children living in proximity to an aluminum smelter. Am Rev Respir Dis. Babisch W. Road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk.
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Noise Health. Nighttime road-traffic noise and arterial hypertension in an urban population. Since the s, SPL has been recognised as a valuable resource for other industries, including as a feedstock in the cement, mineral wool and steel production processes. There is variation in composition of SPL depending on such factors as the type of aluminium smelting technology used, the initial components of the cell lining and dismantling procedures. Indicative composition of SPL for three different technologies is shown in the following table.
Cyanide compounds form in the pot lining when nitrogen from air reacts with other substances. For example, nitrogen reacting with sodium and carbon according to the equation -. Aluminium carbide forms in the potlining from the reaction of aluminium metal and carbon according to the equation —. Aluminium nitride forms from a number of reactions including the reaction of cryolite with nitrogen and sodium according to the equation -. Gases are generated from reactions of water with compounds such as un-oxidised aluminium metal, un-oxidised sodium metal, aluminium carbide and aluminium nitride.
Typical gases from the reaction of SPL with water are:.
A number of research studies     included biological tests to evaluate the toxicity of SPL on plants and humans. Aluminium, cyanide and fluoride salts were identified as the major toxic agents in SPL. The genotoxic potential of SPL and its main chemical components was evaluated on vegetal and human cells. Observed effects on vegetal cells included reduction in mitotic index and an increase in the frequency of chromosome alterations. Fluoride was the main genotoxic component for human leukocytes. The observed effects induced by SPL suggest its mutagenic potential on plant and animal cells, confirming its noxiousness to the environment and human beings.
The studies consistently recommend that handling measures and appropriate disposal of SPL are extremely important and indispensable to avoid its dispersion to the environment and that the storage and disposal of SPL should be supervised closely in order to reduce the risk. Past practices for dealing with Spent Potlining SPL include dumping it in rivers or in the sea or storing it in open dumps or landfilling. These methods are not environmentally acceptable because of the leachability of cyanides and fluorides.
More recently SPL has been stored in secure landfills where it is placed on an impermeable base and covered with an impermeable cap. A study of a landfill containing SPL located in North America identified four chemical species as priority contaminants: cyanide, fluoride, iron and aluminium. Life-cycle assessment and ground water transport modelling were used to provide an understanding of the situation identifying environmental issues and significant ecotoxilogical potential impacts. The study observed that, while assumptions that the confinement of soil and waste was assumed to be perfect, in fact these sites could themselves become sources of contamination.
The study states that the most advantageous option is the total destruction of the SPL fraction if concerns about the quality of long term confinement are considered. There is, therefore, a real need to find safe, acceptable alternative ways to landfill disposal. SPL was dumped by previous owners in an unlined waste repository at the Kurri Kurri smelter in Australia resulting in contamination of the local groundwater aquifer with high levels of fluoride, cyanide, sodium sulphate and chloride. DE between the Port of Tacoma and the Washington State Department of Ecology addresses the removal, through excavation and offsite disposal, of SPL zone material and associated contaminated soil at an old aluminium smelter site.
The background to this situation is that from to , the US Department of Defense built and operated an aluminum smelter at the Site. In , Kaiser Aluminum closed the plant and, in , the Port of Tacoma purchased the smelter property from Kaiser Aluminum for redevelopment. A number of alternatives have been proposed for treatment of SPL. The alternatives can be classified as follows:.
Recycling through other industries is an attractive and proven option; however, classification of SPL as a hazardous waste has greatly discouraged other industries from utilizing SPL, due to the burdensome and expensive environmental regulations. Andrade-Vieira, L.
Minute Order Holywell, G. JOM, Vol. International Aluminium Institute Aluminium Industry Benchmarking Godin, J.
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Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Kumar, B. Palmieri, M. Cytogenotoxic effects of spent pot liner SPL and its main components on human leukocytes and meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 5 , 1— Cytotoxicity of spent pot liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: a comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, , — Cytotoxic and phytotoxic effects of the main chemical components of spent pot-liner: a comparative approach, Mutation Research, , 30— Pawlek, R.
Spent potlining: an update. In Suarez C. Light Metals. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. Pong, T.
Rustad, I. Disposal Options for Spent Potlining. In Wolley, G. Waste Materials in Construction. Shipowners Club